It was recently discovered that there was a vulnerability within the ASP.Net Forms Authentication process that could allow an attacker to force a user to visit a malicious web site upon successful authentication. Until this vulnerability was found, it was thought that the only way to allow the Forms Authentication redirect (managed by the ReturnUrl parameter) to redirect outside of the host application's domain was to set enableCrossAppRedirects to true in the web.config file. If this property was set to false, the default value, then redirection could only occur within the current site.
So how does it work? When a user navigates to a page that requires authentication, and they are not currently authenticated, ASP.Net redirects them to the login page. This redirection appends a querystring value onto the url that, once successful login occurs, will allow the user to be redirected to the originally requested page. Here is an example (Assuming that EnableCrossAppRedirects="False"):
- User requests the following page: http://www.jardinesoftware.com/useredit.aspx
- The framework recognizes that the user is not authenticated and redirects the user to http://www.jardinesoftware.com/logon.aspx?ReturnUrl=useredit.aspx
- The user enters their login information and successfully authenticates.
- The application then analyzes the ReturnUrl and attempts to determine if the Url references a location with the current domain, or if it is outside of the domain. To do this, it uses the Uri object to determine if the Url is an Absolute path or not.
- If it is determined to NOT be an absolute path, by using the Uri object, then the redirect is accepted.
- If it is determined to be an absolute path, additional checks are made to determine if the hosts match for both the current site and the redirect site. If they do, a redirect is allowed. Otherwise, the user is redirected to the default page.
The details are not fully known at this time as to what the malicious link may look like to trick ASP.Net into believing that the Url is part of the same domain, so unfortunately I don't have an example of that. If I get one, I will be sure to post it. It does appear that some WAF's are starting to include some signatures to try and detect this, but that should be part of defense in depth, not the sole solution. Apply the patch. The bulletin for MS11-100 describes the patch that is available to remediate this vulnerability.
It is important to note that this is an issue in the FormsAuthentication.RedirectFromLogin method and not the Response.Redirect method. If you are doing the latter, through a custom login function, you would be required to validate the ReturnUrl. If you use the default implementation to redirect a user after credentials have been verified or use the built in asp:Login controls, you will want to make sure this patch gets applied.
This issue requires that a legitimate user clicks on a link that already has a malicious return url included and then successfully logs in to the site. This could be done through some sort of phishing scheme or by posting the link somewhere where someone would click on it. It is always recommended that when users go to a site that requires authentication that they type in the address to the site, rather than follow a link someone sent them.
This issue doesn't have any impact on the site that requires authentication, it is strictly a way for attackers to get users to visit a malicious site of their own.
For more information you can read Microsoft's Security Bulletin here: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/security/bulletin/ms11-100.
The information provided in this post is provided as-is and is for educational purposes only. It is imperative that developers understand the vulnerabilities that exist within the frameworks/platforms that they work with. Although there is not much you can really do when the vulnerability is found within the framework, understanding the possible workarounds and the risks associate with them help determine proper remediation efforts.